Table of Contents

Abbreviations Used in the Essay
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Foreword: Dr. John O Voll
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Editor's Note: Sabreen Akhter
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Acknowledgments
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Objectives of the Review
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Attitudes towards Prophet Muhammad
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I. The Seeker of Truth
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II. The Recipient of the Mantle of Prophethood/ The Warner and the Exhorter
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III. The Stoic Optimist
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IV. The Pluralistic Leader
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V. The Courageous Yet Reluctant Warrior
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VI. The Statesman par excellence and the Teacher
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VII. The Compassionate Ruler and Spiritual Leader
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Does this essay cover any new ground?
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Appendices
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The Sources for This Essay


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Acknowledgments

I am grateful to many friends for encouraging me and providing valuable criticism of this work. In particular, I am very grateful to Dr. Asad Husain, Professor of Political Science at Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL, and Chairman of the American Islamic College, also in Chicago, IL, for persistently motivating me to write this essay. Former Vice Chancellor of both Aligarh Muslim University and Osmania University in India, Syed Hashim Ali, was both enthusiastic about the project and provided important insights. A bright young man, Syed Mohiuddin Ahmed, also provided some very useful suggestions.
Professor John Voll was kind enough to take time out of his extremely busy schedule and initially review the manuscript and later write a foreword for it. His comments provided me the scholarly peer review I was looking for.
My daughter, Sabreen, toiled away for many hours editing this essay, and along with my eldest daughter, Nausheen, gave me the young Muslim's perspective that was so invaluable in providing focus to this topic. I am also grateful to my wife, Naheed, for bearing with my complete indulgence in this project. My mother, Mrs. Akhtary Razzak, and my late father, Dr. A. A. Razzak, whom I have always loved and revered, have also always inspired me.
Javeed Akhter
October, 2001
Chicago